Fair Credit Reporting ActClick the plus sign to see the credit models for each bureau.
I. OBLIGATIONS OF ALL USERS OF CONSUMER REPORTS
A. Users Must Have a Permissible Purpose
Congress has limited the use of consumer reports to protect consumers’ privacy. All users must have a permissible purpose under the FCRA to obtain a consumer report. Section 604 contains a list of the permissible purposes under the law. These are:
- As ordered by a court or a federal grand jury subpoena. Section 604(a)(1)
- For the extension of credit as a result of an application from a consumer, or the review or collection of a consumer’s account. Section 604(a)(3)(A)
- For employment purposes, including hiring and promotion decisions, where the consumer has given written permission. Sections 604(a)(3)(B) and 604(b)
- For the underwriting of insurance as a result of an application from a consumer. Section 604(a)(3)(C)
- When there is a legitimate business need, in connection with a business transaction that is initiated by the consumer. Section 604(a)(3)(F)(i)
- To review a consumer’s account to determine whether the consumer continues to meet the terms of the account. Section 604(a)(3)(F)(ii)
- To determine a consumer’s eligibility for a license or other benefit granted by a governmental instrumentality required by law to consider an applicant’s financial responsibility or status. Section 604(a)(3)(D)
- For use by a potential investor or servicer, or current insurer, in a valuation or assessment of the credit or prepayment risks associated with an existing credit obligation. Section 604(a)(3)(E)
- For use by state and local officials in connection with the determination of child support payments, or modifications and enforcement thereof. Sections 604(a)(4) and 604(a)(5)
In addition, creditors and insurers may obtain certain consumer report information for the purpose of making “prescreened” unsolicited offers of credit or insurance. Section 604(c). The particular obligations of users of “prescreened” information are described in Section VII below.
B. Users Must Provide Certifications
Section 604(f) prohibits any person from obtaining a consumer report from a consumer reporting agency (CRA) unless the person has certified to the CRA the permissible purpose(s) for which the report is being obtained and certifies that the report will not be used for any other purpose.
C. Users Must Notify Consumers When Adverse Actions Are Taken
The term “adverse action” is defined very broadly by Section 603. “Adverse actions” include all business, credit, and employment actions affecting consumers that can be considered to have a negative impact as defined by Section 603(k) of the FCRA – such as denying or canceling credit or insurance, or denying employment or promotion. No adverse action occurs in a credit transaction where the creditor makes a counteroffer that is accepted by the consumer.
1. Adverse Actions Based on Information Obtained from a CRA
If a user takes any type of adverse action as defined by the FCRA that is based at least in part on information contained in a consumer report, Section 615(a) requires the user to notify the consumer. The notification may be done in writing, orally, or by electronic means. It must include the following:
- The name, address, and telephone number of the CRA (including a toll-free telephone number, if it is a nationwide CRA) that provided the report.
- A statement that the CRA did not make the adverse decision and is not able to explain why the decision was made.
- A statement setting forth the consumer’s right to obtain a free disclosure of the consumer’s file from the CRA if the consumer makes a request within 60 days.
A statement setting forth the consumer’s right to dispute directly with the CRA the accuracy or completeness of any information provided by the CRA.
2. Adverse Actions Based on Information Obtained from Third Parties Who Are Not Consumer Reporting Agencies
If a person denies (or increases the charge for) credit for personal, family, or household purposes based either wholly or partly upon information from a person other than a CRA, and the information is the type of consumer information covered by the FCRA, Section 615(b)(1) requires that the user clearly and accurately disclose to the consumer his or her right to be told the nature of the information that was relied upon if the consumer makes a written request within 60 days of notification. The user must provide the disclosure within a reasonable period of time following the consumer’s written request.
3. Adverse Actions Based on Information Obtained from Affiliates
If a person takes an adverse action involving insurance, employment, or a credit transaction initiated by the consumer, based on information of the type covered by the FCRA, and this information was obtained from an entity affiliated with the user of the information by common ownership or control, Section 615(b)(2) requires the user to notify the consumer of the adverse action. The notice must inform the consumer that he or she may obtain a disclosure of the nature of the information relied upon by making a written request within 60 days of receiving the adverse action notice. If the consumer makes such a request, the user must disclose the nature of the information not later than 30 days after receiving the request. If consumer report information is shared among affiliates and then used for an adverse action, the user must make an adverse action disclosure as set forth in I.C.1 above.
D. Users Have Obligations When Fraud and Active Duty Military Alerts are in Files
When a consumer has placed a fraud alert, including one relating to identity theft, or an active duty military alert with a nationwide consumer reporting agency as defined in Section 603(p) and resellers, Section 605A(h) imposes limitations on users of reports obtained from the consumer reporting agency in certain circumstances, including the establishment of a new credit plan and the issuance of additional credit cards. For initial fraud alerts and active duty alerts, the user must have reasonable policies and procedures in place to form a belief that the user knows the identity of the applicant or contact the consumer at a telephone number specified by the consumer; in the case of extended fraud alerts, the user must contact the consumer in accordance with the contact information provided in the consumer’s alert.
E. Users Have Obligations When Notified of an Address Discrepancy
Section 605(h) requires nationwide CRAs, as defined in Section 603(p), to notify users that request reports when the address for a consumer provided by the user in requesting the report is substantially different from the addresses in the consumer’s file. When this occurs, users must comply with regulations specifying the procedures to be followed, which will be issued by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and the banking and credit union regulators. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s regulations will be available at www.consumerfinance.gov/learnmore.
F. Users Have Obligations When Disposing of Records
Section 628 requires that all users of consumer report information have in place procedures to properly dispose of records containing this information. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the banking and credit union regulators have issued regulations covering disposal. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s regulations may be found at www.consumerfinance.gov/learnmore.
II. CREDITORS MUST MAKE ADDITIONAL DISCLOSURES
If a person uses a consumer report in connection with an application for, or a grant, extension, or provision of, credit to a consumer on material terms that are materially less favorable than the most favorable terms available to a substantial proportion of consumers from or through that person, based in whole or in part on a consumer report, the person must provide a risk-based pricing notice to the consumer in accordance with regulations to be jointly prescribed by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and the Federal Reserve Board.
Section 609(g) requires a disclosure by all persons that make or arrange loans secured by residential real property (one to four units) and that use credit scores. These persons must provide credit scores and other information about credit scores to applicants, including the disclosure set forth in Section 609(g)(1)(D) (“Notice to the Home Loan Applicant”).
III. OBLIGATIONS OF USERS WHEN CONSUMER REPORTS ARE OBTAINED FOR EMPLOYMENT PURPOSES
A. Employment Other Than in the Trucking Industry
If information from a CRA is used for employment purposes, the user has specific duties, which are set forth in Section 604(b) of the FCRA. The user must:
- Make a clear and conspicuous written disclosure to the consumer before the report is obtained, in a document that consists solely of the disclosure, that a consumer report may be obtained.
- Obtain from the consumer prior written authorization. Authorization to access reports during the term of employment may be obtained at the time of employment.
- Certify to the CRA that the above steps have been followed, that the information being obtained will not be used in violation of any federal or state equal opportunity law or regulation, and that, if any adverse action is to be taken based on the consumer report, a copy of the report and a summary of the consumer’s rights will be provided to the consumer.
- Before taking an adverse action, the user must provide a copy of the report to the consumer as well as the summary of consumer’s rights. (The user should receive this summary from the CRA.) A Section 615(a) adverse action notice should be sent after the adverse action is taken.
An adverse action notice also is required in employment situations if credit information (other than transactions and experience data) obtained from an affiliate is used to deny employment. Section 615(b)(2)
The procedures for investigative consumer reports and employee misconduct investigations are set forth below.
B. Employment in the Trucking Industry
Special rules apply for truck drivers where the only interaction between the consumer and the potential employer is by mail, telephone, or computer. In this case, the consumer may provide consent orally or electronically, and an adverse action may be made orally, in writing, or electronically. The consumer may obtain a copy of any report relied upon by the trucking company by contacting the company.
IV. OBLIGATIONS WHEN INVESTIGATIVE CONSUMER REPORTS ARE USED
Investigative consumer reports are a special type of consumer report in which information about a consumer’s character, general reputation, personal characteristics, and mode of living is obtained through personal interviews by an entity or person that is a consumer reporting agency. Consumers who are the subjects of such reports are given special rights under the FCRA. If a user intends to obtain an investigative consumer report, Section 606 requires the following:
- The user must disclose to the consumer that an investigative consumer report may be obtained. This must be done in a written disclosure that is mailed, or otherwise delivered, to the consumer at some time before or not later than three days after the date on which the report was first requested. The disclosure must include a statement informing the consumer of his or her right to request additional disclosures of the nature and scope of the investigation as described below, and the summary of consumer rights required by Section 609 of the FCRA. (The summary of consumer rights will be provided by the CRA that conducts the investigation.)
- The user must certify to the CRA that the disclosures set forth above have been made and that the user will make the disclosure described below.
- Upon the written request of a consumer made within a reasonable period of time after the disclosures required above, the user must make a complete disclosure of the nature and scope of the investigation. This must be made in a written statement that is mailed, or otherwise delivered, to the consumer no later than five days after the date on which the request was received from the consumer or the report was first requested, whichever is later in time
V. SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR EMPLOYEE INVESTIGATIONS
Section 603(x) provides special procedures for investigations of suspected misconduct by an employee or for compliance with Federal, state or local laws and regulations or the rules of a self-regulatory organization, and compliance with written policies of the employer. These investigations are not treated as consumer reports so long as the employer or its agent complies with the procedures set forth in Section 603(x), and a summary describing the nature and scope of the inquiry is made to the employee if an adverse action is taken based on the investigation.
VI. OBLIGATIONS OF USERS OF MEDICAL INFORMATION
Section 604(g) limits the use of medical information obtained from consumer reporting agencies (other than payment information that appears in a coded form that does not identify the medical provider). If the information is to be used for an insurance transaction, the consumer must give consent to the user of the report or the information must be coded. If the report is to be used for employment purposes – or in connection with a credit transaction (except as provided in regulations issued by the banking and credit union regulators) – the consumer must provide specific written consent and the medical information must be relevant. Any user who receives medical information shall not disclose the information to any other person (except where necessary to carry out the purpose for which the information was disclosed, or as permitted by statute, regulation, or order).
VII. OBLIGATIONS OF USERS OF “PRESCREENED” LISTS
The FCRA permits creditors and insurers to obtain limited consumer report information for use in connection with unsolicited offers of credit or insurance under certain circumstances. Sections 603(l), 604(c), 604(e), and 615(d). This practice is known as “prescreening” and typically involves obtaining from a CRA a list of consumers who meet certain pre-established criteria. If any person intends to use prescreened lists, that person must (1) before the offer is made, establish the criteria that will be relied upon to make the offer and to grant credit or insurance, and (2) maintain such criteria on file for a three-year period beginning on the date on which the offer is made to each consumer. In addition, any user must provide with each written solicitation a clear and conspicuous statement that:
- Information contained in a consumer’s CRA file was used in connection with the transaction.
- The consumer received the offer because he or she satisfied the criteria for credit worthiness or insurability used to screen for the offer.
- Credit or insurance may not be extended if, after the consumer responds, it is determined that the consumer does not meet the criteria used for screening or any applicable criteria bearing on credit worthiness or insurability, or the consumer does not furnish required collateral.
- The consumer may prohibit the use of information in his or her file in connection with future prescreened offers of credit or insurance by contacting the notification system established by the CRA that provided the report. The statement must include the address and toll-free telephone number of the appropriate notification system.
In addition, once the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau by rule has established the format, type size, and manner of the disclosure required by Section 615(d), users must be in compliance with the rule. The CFPB’s regulations will be at www.consumerfinance.gov/learnmore.
VIII. LIABILITY FOR VIOLATIONS OF THE FCRA
Failure to comply with the FCRA can result in state government or federal government enforcement actions, as well as private lawsuits. Sections 616, 617, and 621. In addition, any person who knowingly and willfully obtains a consumer report under false pretenses may face criminal prosecution. Section 619.
The CFPB’s Web site, www.consumerfinance.gov/learnmore, has more information about the FCRA, including publications for businesses and the full text of the FCRA.
Citations for FCRA sections in the U.S. Code, 15 U.S.C. § 1681 et seq.:
Section 602 15 U.S.C. 1681
Section 603 15 U.S.C. 1681a
Section 604 15 U.S.C. 1681b
Section 605 15 U.S.C. 1681c
Section 605A 15 U.S.C. 1681cA
Section 605B 15 U.S.C. 1681cB
Section 606 15 U.S.C. 1681d
Section 607 15 U.S.C. 1681e
Section 608 15 U.S.C. 1681f
Section 609 15 U.S.C. 1681g
Section 610 15 U.S.C. 1681h
Section 611 15 U.S.C. 1681i
Section 612 15 U.S.C. 1681j
Section 613 15 U.S.C. 1681k
Section 614 15 U.S.C. 1681l
Section 615 15 U.S.C. 1681m
Section 616 15 U.S.C. 1681n
Section 617 15 U.S.C. 1681o
Section 618 15 U.S.C. 1681p
Section 619 15 U.S.C. 1681q
Section 620 15 U.S.C. 1681r
Section 621 15 U.S.C. 1681s
Section 622 15 U.S.C. 1681s-1
Section 623 15 U.S.C. 1681s-2
Section 624 15 U.S.C. 1681t
Section 625 15 U.S.C. 1681u
Section 626 15 U.S.C. 1681v
Section 627 15 U.S.C. 1681w
Section 628 15 U.S.C. 1681x
Section 629 15 U.S.C. 1681y
IMPORTANT NOTICE AFFECTING END USERS DOING BUSINESS WITH VERMONT RESIDENTS
VERMONT – Notice of Requirement for Consumer Consent
Under Vermont law, no one may access a Vermont consumer’s credit report without obtaining the consumer’s permission except under the following limited circumstances:
(A) in response to the order of a court having jurisdiction to issue such an order;
(B) for direct mail offers of credit (prescreening), as permitted by the FCRA;
(C) for the purpose of reviewing an account, increasing the credit line on the account, taking collection action on the account, or for other legitimate purposes associated with the account, if the consumer has given ongoing permission to obtain reports in connection with an existing credit relationship;
(D) where the request for a credit report is related to an education loan made, guaranteed, or serviced by the Vermont Student Assistance Corporation;
(E) where the request for a credit report is by the Office of Child Support Services when investigating a child support case;
(F) where the request for a credit report is related to a credit transaction entered into prior to January 1, 1993; or
(G) where the request for a credit report is by the Vermont State Tax Department and is used for the purpose of collecting or investigating delinquent taxes.
If you have obtained consent from the consumer to receive their credit report, the report may only be used for the purpose consented to by the consumer.
The Vermont statute above is provided to you with the intention of increasing awareness of your responsibilities under VT2480e(b) only. The notice is not meant to be an exhaustive representation of all Vermont laws affecting credit report users nor of your obligations under such laws. In short, it is not intended to provide you with, nor shall it be construed as, legal advice regarding Vermont law.
Should you have any questions about your or your institution’s specific obligations under the FCRA or any related state law, we ask that you consult with your own legal counsel.